Module 8: Math in Science Part II
Part II: Variables and Hypothesis
• Understand that there are many types of experiments.
• Understand the scientific method as applied to laboratory (and sometimes field) experiments.
• Have a good sense of all variable and hypothesis definitions.
• Understand how to interpret the results of an experiment.
How this Module Will Work
Just like in the previous section, begin by watching the linked video. Be sure to take notes. Take advantage of opportunities for creativity when they arise.
After watching the video, please review the vocabulary listed below. After reviewing vocabulary, follow the quiz link below. Be sure to complete this chapter quiz before moving on to the next chapter.
Thank you for taking the time. I hope to make it well worth it.
Natural Experiment: An experiments where subjects are exposed to experimental (independent variables) and control (controlled variables) conditions by nature or other sources outside the investigators’ control.
Field Experiment: An application of the scientific method in real world environments, rather than in a lab. Experimental and control conditions may or may not be within the investigators’ control.
Laboratory Experiment: An experiment within a controlled laboratory setting. Investigators have control of all experimental conditions and many control conditions.
Observation: The simplest type of experiment, where conclusions are reached by an investigator through observation, as opposed to experimental manipulation.
Independent Variable: A variable that is manipulated by the investigator, under the suspicion that this manipulation may result in changes of the dependent variable.
Dependent Variable: The response that is measured in an experiment after various manipulations of the independent variable (this may include tests where the independent variable is left alone to follow its natural course).
Controlled Variable: An element of an experiment that does not change, often due to great effort on the part of the investigator(s).
Null Hypothesis: The default assumption that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena. That is to say, the assumption that manipulation of the independent variable had no noticeable effect on the dependent variable.
Alternate Hypotheses: Any hypotheses that rival the default, null hypothesis. Typically, an alternate hypothesis is a statement saying that manipulation of the independent variable has some sort of measurable effect on the dependent variable.
Deduction: Drawing conclusions by removing unlikely or impossible explanations.
Conclusion: When using the scientific method, one should state all conclusions using deductive language.
Scientific Method: The culmination of everything stated above.
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